Climate change is a reality. In the West African Sahel for example, several global circulation models predict an increase in temperature, a decrease in rainfall and an increase in rainfall variability this century (Buontempo 2010). Sahelian farmers have faced droughts or floods for years and the impacts threaten their livelihoods. Therefore development projects in rural communities should work with the communities to develop and monitor action plans that would help the communities adapt to climate change. Adaptation to climate change should be done locally and based on local knowledge and practices. This requires a consideration of rural
communities’ vulnerability to different risks and their capacity to adapt. An action plan is intended as a framework to allow communities to organize themselves better
to deal with the complex factors that affect their resources and livelihoods.