This manual has been developed to help build the capacities of farmers, farmers groups, extension staff and project managers who are implementing agricultural carbon projects in Eastern Africa. The manual describes the steps for implementing an afforestation/reforestation voluntary carbon project based on the Plan Vivo Standard. It builds on experience gained by the Environmental Conservation Trust of Uganda (ECOTRUST), ENR Africa Associates, and EcoAgriculture Partners while undertaking a participatory action research project focusing on the institutional arrangements of smallholder agricultural carbon projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This work was supported by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS). The objectives of this project were to identify specific institutional challenges and solutions in carbon projects, implement solutions, and track the impact of these efforts. After conducting analyses to identify specific institutional challenges, carbon project managers jointly determined that the challenge they wanted to work on was that of building local institutions to manage carbon projects. Progress in this area would not only increase the development benefits of the projects, and reduce transaction, staffing, and consulting costs, but would also be necessary for the long-term success of the projects.